By John L. Offner

Offner clarifies the complicated family members of the USA, Spain, and Cuba prime as much as the Spanish-American warfare and contends that the struggle was once now not sought after through any of the events yet was once still unavoidable. He exhibits ultimate around of peace negotiations failed largely simply because inner political constraints constrained diplomatic flexibility.

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Extra info for An Unwanted War: The Diplomacy of the United States and Spain Over Cuba, 1895-1898

Example text

These officeholders and election managers were called caciques. When candidates for office were determined, a few spaces were reserved for the opposition. Often only one person ran for each office, and the results of the election came as no surprise; sometimes they were published before the election occurred. Obviously the Spanish electoral system was not democratic; it was not designed to be so. 16 During the Restoration, two governing political parties emerged, the Conservatives and the Liberals.

About 250,000 Spanish soldiers and Cuban volunteers had failed to defeat Gómez; some had died in combat, and tens of thousands had succumbed to tropical diseases; makeshift hospitals were filled with sick and dying troops. Those able to fight were insufficient to mount large-scale operations to search out and destroy insurgents. To this military failure were added the thousands of Cuban civilians who had perished in reconcentration camps and the thousands more condemned to starvation, disease, and death.

At the same time, Spain encouraged domestic beet production, with the result that Cuba’s cane sugar exporters faced declining peninsular sales. Although Spain had an unfavorable balance of trade with the outside world, soaring Cuban sugar sales to the United States helped offset the nation’s unfavorable import account. 24 When the Cuban rebellion began, Cánovas, who became prime minister a few weeks after the outbreak, sent Martínez de Campos to Cuba. Arriving in April, the captain general, who had negotiated the end of the previous Cuban uprising, quickly realized that the scope of the new insurrection was much greater than the last and that a political solution modeled after that of 1878 was out of the question.

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An Unwanted War: The Diplomacy of the United States and Spain Over Cuba, 1895-1898 by John L. Offner


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