By Jennifer I. Lim (ed.)
Addressing a massive affecting hundreds of thousands world wide, this resource compiles the main functional and groundbreaking study at the etiology, evaluate, and remedy of Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD). With full-color illustrations all through, this reference explores examine developments that experience ended in novel remedies that supply sight saving, much less harmful different types of remedy for exudative AMD, in addition to thoughts to avoid the development of non-exudative AMD. With 3 new chapters and expansive volume of part updates, this resource offers the newest reports on OCT imaging, experimental remedies, new purposes for thermal lasers, and gene remedy for AMD. The resource additionally summarizes reviews from present scientific trials to stay the highest quality within the provision of deal with sufferers with this disabling disorder.
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Extra resources for Age-Related Macular Degeneration
However, many other areas of active choroidal inﬂammation are clinically not apparent. ” Chronic persistent low grade inﬂammation apparently triggers CNV formation (187,188). Additionally, many other forms of chronic chorioretinitis are also associated with RPE atrophy and CNV formation, and some of these may represent occult infection of the choroid or RPE with virus or other infectious agents (189). The role of infection in AMD remains entirely speculative. Although it is unlikely that histoplasmosis contributes to AMD, trapping of antigens related to other common organisms conceivably could occur.
Active infection is differentiated from harmless colonization by the presence of invasion and replication of the infectious agent (91). However, active infections do not always trigger innate immunity, illustrated by some retinal parasite infections in which inﬂammation occurs only when the parasite dies. Recently, the idea has emerged that certain kinds of chronic infections might cause (or at least contribute to) degenerative diseases that are not considered to be truly inﬂammatory (88–91). One of the most dramatic examples is peptic ulcer disease, recently recognized to be caused by infection of the gastric subepithelial mucosa with a gram-positive bacterium called Helicobacter pylori (92).
Hormones associated with hypertension and aging) can upregulate cell adhesion molecules and chemotactic factors that lead to macrophage recruitment into various vascularized tissues. Extracellular deposit accumulation can also contribute to activation of innate immunity by serving as a substrate for scavenging and phagocytosis, especially if the deposits are chemically modiﬁed by oxidation or other processes (see atherosclerosis below). , endotoxins, exotoxins, cell wall components) that directly interact with receptors on macrophages, on neutrophils or, in some cases, on parenchymal cells.
Age-Related Macular Degeneration by Jennifer I. Lim (ed.)