By Christopher Lord (auth.)

ISBN-10: 1349431737

ISBN-13: 9781349431731

ISBN-10: 140394816X

ISBN-13: 9781403948168

ISBN-10: 6720043412

ISBN-13: 9786720043411

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Extra info for A Democratic Audit of the European Union

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4. Since arrangements for consultation, representation, responsiveness, transparency and accountability differ markedly across the various instruments, the Audit needs to include them as possible sources of variation in the democratic performance of the EU. Treaty formation. The pillars, institutions and policy instruments may at any one time be the most plausible sources of variation in the democratic qualities of Union rule, but any can be changed by decisions on the overall institutional design of the Union.

This has a number of consequences. First the EU is never likely to be a system in which the public has a single clear opportunity to enforce responsibility by, for example, removing a ‘government’ (Weiler, 1997b, p. 225). Second, there may be too little at stake in any one election or procedure to mobilise high and sustained levels of public participation or even attention to Union matters. Third, it may be difficult to institutionalise political equality as long as the rights of ordinary citizens and their representatives to exercise public control of Union processes are significantly affected by variations in the sub-arenas that give them access to the Union, both variation in the Auditing Democracy in the European Union 21 bargaining power of each Member State in Union decision-making and in the internal representative politics of each Member State (see Chapter 7).

The ECJ has no jurisdiction. Third pillar procedures Common positions and joint actions are also used in JHA. In addition, the Council can draw up Conventions. These are recommended to Member States, which can decide whether to adopt them according to the rules of their own political systems. The powers of the Commission and EP are much as for pillar two. The ECJ may have jurisdiction where the Council provides on a case-by-case basis. intergovernmental conference (IGC) scheduled for 2004. Treaty changes ultimately require the unanimous consent of representatives of member governments meeting in an IGC, though they may be prepared by various means, including a deliberative Convention.

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A Democratic Audit of the European Union by Christopher Lord (auth.)

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